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Phase Change Materials – Eutectic Thermal Energy Storage Products
Ice thermal energy storage (TES) has the advantage of universal availability, low cost and transportability through other system components. However, conventional ice TES systems for air conditioning applications require low temperature chillers and therefore standard water chillers must be replaced with low temperature glycol chillers that operate at low evaporation temperatures and consume more power.
If we can offer designers ice that freezes and melts above or below 0°C (32 °F), these new products will open new horizons for environmentally friendly and economical systems for both new and retrofit type process cooling/heating load shifting applications.
Phase Change Material (PCM) Eutectic solution is a mixture of two or more chemicals that, when mixed in a specific ratio, have a freezing/melting point below or above the freezing point of water at 0 °C (32 °F) and they offer a thermal Energy storage facility between -114 °C (-173 °F) and +164 °C (327 °F).
Eutectics are well known and indeed the earliest applications date back to the late 18th century but the segregation and life expectancy of these mixtures were unpredictable and therefore limited their widespread use.
The disadvantages of conventional HVAC chillers and ice (water ice) storage systems can be overcome by utilizing the latent heat capacity of various “eutectic” mixtures without the need for minus circulation temperatures.
Phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage not only enables the designer to use existing chiller technology but also enables charging through free cooling, i.e. without running the chillers.
Although the term “eutectic” is widely used to describe the materials we are interested in, a better description would be “phase change materials” (“PCMs”). Unfortunately, very few documented PCM solutions are true eutectics and many have to be modified to obtain a material suitable for long-term use.
PCM can be broadly grouped into two categories; “organic compounds” and “salt-based products”. The basic requirement for a modified eutectic (PCM) solution can be classified into three categories, namely stable solution (no segregation or degradation), minimal supercooling/heating and finally freezing and melting temperatures.
There are three basic additives used to modify hydrated salt-based eutectic PCM solutions. These three components are firstly a nucleating agent that promotes the formation of crystals and therefore minimizes supercooling and secondly an additive freeze depressant to achieve a lower phase transition temperature and thirdly a gelling/thickening agent to overcome segregation and fouling problems.
After careful application of the above components, a eutectic PCM solution satisfactory from a physical and thermodynamic point of view can be produced and commercially available solutions offer a range of -114 °C (-173 °F) and +164 °C (327). °F).
However, the majority of PCM solutions suitable for HVAC and refrigeration systems are corrosive to commonly used pipe and line components and therefore appropriate encapsulation techniques must be implemented to overcome this problem while providing the best thermal performance. Various encapsulation techniques such as tube, flat container or alternatively ball concepts have been developed in which PCM solutions are encapsulated in a plastic and/or metal shell.
Heat transfer between the surrounding media, which flows around the unit or in and around the PCM solution, occurs through a combination of both surfaces of the outer or inner or encapsulated PCM unit. These technologies generally eliminate contamination risk and provide new types of TES designs that are efficient, cost effective, practical and flexible.
Modern society’s dependence on refrigeration and air conditioning indicates that refrigeration and its associated environmental problems will be with us for a considerable time and therefore existing and available alternative technologies with minimal use of energy must be used.
Positive temperature eutectic phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage (TES) not only provides the end user with an environmentally friendly design but also provides the following additional benefits:
o Reduced device size
o Capital cost savings
o Energy cost savings
o Environment friendly installation
o Improved system operation
o Flexibility for future capabilities
The temperature ranges offered by the proposed PCM solutions use conventional cooling water temperature ranges for the charging and discharging aspects of the system. Therefore, they can be applied to any new or retrofit application with minimal technical and economic impacts.
Furthermore, the possibility of free cooling cycle, absorption chiller, co-generation, solar, hot water and heat recovery TES system combinations offers designers new horizons to control the energy balance that matches the load and electricity demand/consumption of the system. the whole
The task of designers is to explore all available techniques to achieve improved efficiency regardless of the refrigerant used, and implement diversification techniques where and when possible to minimize overall CO2 emissions associated with energy use. A carefully balanced eutectic, phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage (TES) may be the answer to some cooling applications for an environmentally friendly and economical alternative.
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