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## Sabermetrics Formulas

Sabermetrics uses deep-dive statistical analysis to analyze baseball records. It helps to determine about the performance of the players. The practice began in 1977 when Bill James began self-publishing works about a new discipline called sabermetrics.

Sabermetrics was recently popularized by the movie Moneyball which depicted how Billy Beane, the Oakland A’s general manager, used Sabermetrics in 2002.

I personally go by the feel of the game to make decisions about individual players, but here’s a quick look at some Sabermetrics formulas:

Adjusted ERA (ERA+): Earned run average adjusted for ballpark and league average.

Batting Average on Balls in Play (BABIP): The frequency with which batters reach base after putting the ball in play. For pitchers this is usually a measure of luck. So, pitchers with a high or low BABIP are a good bet to see their performance adjusted to average.

Base Runs (BsR): Estimates the number of runs a team “needs” given its component offensive stats.

Component ERA (CERA): Estimates of a pitcher’s ERA are based on the individual components of his statistical line, another statistic that tries to take luck out of the equation.

Defensive Efficiency (Def Eff): The rate at which balls put in play are turned into outs by a team’s defense. This can be approximated with (1 – BABIP).

Defense-Independent ERA (DERA): This is a measure of what a pitcher’s earned run average would have been if not for the effects of defense and luck. It uses batters faced, home runs allowed, walks allowed, intentional walks allowed, strikeouts and hit batters in a complex mathematical formula.

Defense Independent Component ERA (DICE): Formula that measures pitching performance using home runs allowed, walks, hits by pitch, strikeouts and innings pitched.

Defense Independent Pitching Statistics (DIPS): A series of statistics measuring a pitcher’s effectiveness based on games not involving fielders: home runs, strikeouts, hit batters, walks, and more recently fly ball percentage, ground ball percentage. and line drive percentage.

Equivalent Average (EqA): A statistic used to measure hitters independent of ballpark and league effects. EqA takes into account hits, total bases, walks, hits by pitches, stolen bases, sacrifice hits, sacrifice flies, at-bats and caught stealing. This league is then normalized for difficulty.

Extrapolated Runs (XR): Like constructed runs, this assigns a run value to each event instead of a multiplication formula.

Fielding Runs Above Replacement: The difference between an average player and a replacement player, determined by the number of plays that are called to make up the position.

Inherited Runs (IR): The number of runners inherited from a relief pitcher who scored while the reliever was in the game.

Isolated Power (ISO): A measure of a hitter’s raw power – extra bases per at bat.

Late-Inning Pressure Situation (LIPS): In any at-bat in the seventh inning or later, when the batter’s team is trailing by three runs or less (or four runs if the bases are loaded).

On-base plus slugging (OPS): Measures a batter’s ability to reach base and hit for power. It’s just on-base percentage plus slugging percentage.

Peripheral ERA (PERA): A pitching statistic that calculates expected ERA by allowing for park-adjusted hits, walks, strikeouts and home runs.

Player Empirical Comparison and Optimization Test Algorithm (PECOTA): Named for baseball player Bill Pecotta. It is a very complex formula that predicts player performance in all major categories used in normal fantasy baseball games and predicts production in advanced sabermetric categories.

Pythagorean Expectation: A mathematical formula similar to the Pythagorean theorem and used to estimate how many games a baseball team should have won based on how many runs a team has scored and allowed. Comparing the two percentages can determine how lucky the team was.

Quality Start (QS): A game in which a pitcher completes 6 innings, allowing no more than three runs.

Range Factor (RF): Used to determine how much field a player can cover. That’s nine putouts plus assists divided by innings played.

Runs Created: Measures how many runs a player creates. The formula for creating runs is hits plus walks multiplied by total bases divided by at-bats plus walks.

Total Player Rating (TPR): It measures the value of players which allows players to be compared for different positions, teams and eras.

Value Over Replacement Player (VORP): For hitters, this is the number of runs contributed beyond what a replacement-level player at the same position would contribute.

Win Shares: Using a complex set of maths, it takes into account the stats of the players in terms of their team, and assigns them a third of the team’s number of wins.

Wins Above Replacement Player (WARP): A statistic that combines win share and VORP. It represents the number of wins this player contributed above that of a replacement level hitter, fielder and/or pitcher.

Walks and Hits Per Inning Pitched (WHIP): The average number of walks and hits a pitcher allows per inning.

Study these Sabermetrics formulas and maybe you can become the next Billy Beane.

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