For The Reaction Shown Above What Is The Chemical Formula Chemistry and Thermodynamics

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Chemistry and Thermodynamics

Lost in the jungle of science.

The study of science begins as a small path in the forest of ignorance for everyone, but with effort and experience, that path can become our personal highway of knowledge and information, opening up many possibilities. Albert Einstein, like everyone else, started in the woods, and he showed that getting out was worth the effort not only for him, but for all of his knowledge for mankind. Science is not for everyone and few Einsteins exist. Sadly, many are lost, confused and frustrated, giving up before they utter their first “eureka”, as the gem of knowledge falls into place. Those “eureka” moments can inspire us to go down our special path.

So the first step is to be motivated and want to learn more.

Another important step is to pay attention to definitions: important thing in every field: in sports you need to know the rules to play the game: same for science. Knowing the definitions removes confusion, and applying them (solving problems) solidifies them. Eventually the scientific method and thinking becomes a way of life, and gives insight into many situations, even outside your particular area of ​​expertise.

structure appears. For example, life sciences and medicine depend on biochemistry and medicine, which depend on biological chemistry, and which depend on biological physical chemistry. Physical chemistry is based on physics, and mathematics is the logic that ties them all together.

Along the way there are many sidelines, too numerous to list here: new materials, nano-technology are two important and known topics. Also different fields overlap in multi-disciplinary areas, such as physical chemistry and biological (physical-biochemistry); Organic synthesis and chemical kinetics (organocatalysis), inorganic and organic chemistry (organometallic chemistry): the list goes on and on.

Obviously, no one can become an expert in all these areas. However, a good foundation in the fundamentals of physics allows one to at least be in a position to appreciate the work of others in many areas of scientific endeavor. You may end up in a lawyer, a social worker or finance. A good background in science will help a lawyer argue patent infringement cases; Helps the social worker understand the side effects of the medication the client is taking, and allows the financier to make informed decisions about whether to invest in one mining company or another.

On the other hand, you can become a scientist which leads to many interesting careers.

Scientists and engineers

Science can be divided into two broad categories: basic science (research), and applying those ideas (engineering: also known as research and development (R&D)). Today there are ten times more engineers than scientists. It takes more effort and more people to take basic ideas developed by a few people and turn them into technology that we use to improve the quality of our lives.

Think about the automobile industry. An internal combustion engine based on the Otto cycle was developed by some (which showed that it worked), and then many engineers took that basic idea and developed the cars we have today over the last hundred years.

To be a good engineer, you have to start with the basics and learn the basics before you can apply them.

macroscopic and microscopic

Science is broadly divided into macroscopic (large samples that we can measure and examine), and microscopic (atoms, molecules and collections of these, too small to observe individually).

Macroscopic science has two broad foundations: thermodynamics (the study of heat, work and efficiency), and classical mechanics (Newtonian physics that describes the motion of macroscopic objects).

Microscopic is governed by quantum mechanics.

Since microscopic particles have a lot of symmetry, the field of group theory (mathematical subject) should be mentioned. It helps visualize molecules and reactions, and has particular relevance in the most basic of sciences, which is physics. You don’t have to be a mathematician to use group theory. Mathematics is a tool of scientists: logic guides us.

The field of statistical mechanics relates macroscopic objects to their microscopic particles.

Examples of chemistry

Chemistry is the study of the making and breaking of bonds – which chemicals react to form different chemicals. A chemical reaction proceeds if the conditions are right: the two important conditions are energy and entropy. Both are matter and entropy is as tangible as energy. How did it come about?

Engineers began to notice things about a hundred years ago: like horses that walked in circles and bore cannons to machinery. Horses moved at a steady pace, (constant energy) but a dull bit produced a lot of heat and didn’t do much work (cannon boring was slow), but a sharp bit produced much less heat and more boring. This is the first law of thermodynamics:

Energy (horse power) = heat (friction) + work (cannon bore).

Obviously energy is not cheap (horses have to be bought, fed and cared for), so it would be better to reduce heat loss and increase work. That is, the efficiency of energy use became an important consideration.

In the 19th century, thermodynamics was motivated by the need to increase the efficiency of steam engines driving the Industrial Revolution. The first steam engines were only about 3% efficient and so improvements were definitely needed. Adding a second cylinder, for example, improved things a lot but could they do more? Can the dream of 100% efficiency come true i.e. perpetual motion?

This led Sadi Carnot in 1830 to define a cycle for a steam engine from which entropy was discovered, and the second law of thermodynamics was formulated – perpetual motion was shown to be impossible. The Otto cycle was developed for an internal combustion engine about forty years later.

Although alchemy is an old subject, it was only when the first and second laws of thermodynamics were developed that chemistry really began. Many were involved in its development. Besides Sadi Carnot, some notable names are James Maxwell, Rudolf Clausius, James Jull, Willard Gibbs and Ludwig Boltzmann.

The ideas they developed are well-applied to chemistry. When bonds are broken, energy must be added to the system; And when bonds are formed, energy is released into the surroundings. Some chemical reactions produce more disorder (higher entropy) and sometimes more order (lower entropy) as atoms rearrange to form products. Both energy (heat and work) and entropy (randomness) play important roles in the facilitation of chemical reactions.

Here is an example. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) can explode (a rapid chemical reaction). From the chemical formula it has three nitrogen bonds. Most chemical explosives contain nitrogen. Combustion of one mole of TNT releases 3,400 kJ mol-1 of energy,

C7H5N3O6(s) + 21/4 O2(g) à7 CO2(g) + 5/2 H2O(g) + 3/2 N2 (g) â†H = -3,400 kJmol-1

However, compare this to the energy of burning sugar as sucrose (a slow chemical reaction).

C12H22O11(s) + 12 O2(g) à12 CO2(g) + 11 H2O(l) â†H = -5,644 kJ mol-1

Sucrose produces more energy per mole than TNT! So why isn’t sucrose also explosive? Sucrose burns slowly relative to TNT, with a similarly slow release of carbon dioxide. TNT burns so fast that a lot of energy is released in a short time. Furthermore, solid TNT occupies a smaller volume, but the final volume is equal to 11 moles of gas (about 250 liters at STP). The destruction is not caused by the heat released but by the rapid expansion of the gases produced. Using the first law, some of the energy released by a mole, (3,400 kJ) goes into heat but more work is done around it as the gas expands, and this can cause damage.

Here comes entropy. Note that the right-hand side of TNT combustion contains only 21/4=5.25 moles of gas, while the RHS contains 11 moles of gas. This means that the RHS has more disorder than the LHS. Obviously the rapid expansion in explosive combustion of TNT can cause havoc (it knocks Humpty Dumpty off his wall) and cause massive disorder and therefore an increase in entropy. Both energy and entropy are favorable for this reaction to proceed. This is not always the case, especially in biological processes, where entropy, not energy, is the main driving force.

Thermodynamics tells us which chemical reactions proceed and which do not. Chemical kinetics tells us how fast those reactions occur, and how much energy is required to start the reaction. TNT is not very sensitive to shock because it has a high activation energy. On the other hand, nitroglycerin, (NG), another chemical explosive (with many nitrogen bonds), detonates on small shocks and cannot be transported as a liquid at room temperature. It has low activation energy. Alfred Nobel solved the nitroglycerin problem by inventing dynamite: reducing sensitivity to shock by soaking NG in sawdust, paper or some absorbent material. The patent was so successful that he left us a legacy of the Nobel Prize.

Equilibrium thermodynamics today is a closed field with no new basic research. It is a beautiful, complete and compact theory that gives relationships between macroscopic quantities that we can measure: energy, heat capacity, compressibility factors and many more, with wide application.

Thermodynamics is essential knowledge for all chemists. However, thermodynamics fails to explain why these relationships exist. This is given by another elegant theory called statistical mechanics.

Physical chemistry encompasses all of these.

There is much more to say, but this is a summary. In fact many have said that thermodynamics is not a good name because it describes equilibrium properties, not dynamics. A better name would be thermostatics – but no one calls it that.

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