For Rectal Administration The Rate Drug Absorption Semi Solid Formulations Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Drug Delivery Systems

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Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Drug Delivery Systems

introduction

Pharmacotherapy can be defined as the treatment and prevention of disease and illness by drugs of chemical or biological origin. It is among the most important methods of medical treatment along with surgery, physical therapy, radiation and psychotherapy. Although it is impossible to ascertain the extent to which pharmacotherapy affects human health, there is no doubt that pharmacotherapy, along with improved sanitation, better diet and better housing, has improved human health, life expectancy and quality of life.

Unprecedented developments in genomics and molecular biology provide a plethora of new drug targets today. The use of modern chemical synthetic methods (such as combinatorial chemistry) enables the synthesis of a large number of new drug candidates in a shorter time than before. At the same time, a better understanding of the immune system and rapid advances in molecular biology, cell biology and microbiology allow the development of modern vaccines against old and new challenges.

However, for all these exciting new drug and vaccine candidates, there is a need to develop appropriate dosage forms or drug delivery systems to allow effective, safe and reliable use of these bioactive compounds by the patient. It is important to realize that the active ingredient is only one part of the drug administered to the patient and it is the transformation of the drug into a dosage form or drug delivery system that translates drug discovery and pharmacological research into clinical practice.

Indeed, the employed drug delivery system plays an important role in controlling the pharmacological effect of the drug as it can influence the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the rate of drug release, the site and duration of drug action and subsequently the side effect profile. An optimal drug delivery system ensures that the active drug is available at the workplace for the right time and duration.

Drug delivery system

Drug delivery refers to the approaches, formulations, techniques, and systems for transporting a drug compound into the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.

· Drug delivery systems according to physical conditions

Depending on the physical condition, drug delivery systems can be:

– gaseous (eg anaesthetics),

– liquids (such as solutions, emulsions, suspensions),

– Semisolid (such as creams, ointments, gels and pastes) and

– Solid dosage forms (such as powders, granules, tablets and capsules).

· Drug delivery system according to route of administration

Another way to differentiate dosage forms is according to their site or route of administration.

Parenteral drug delivery: Drugs can be administered directly into the body, via injection or infusion. Depending on the site of administration in the body it can be differentiated into:

a) Subcutaneous injection

b) Intramuscular injection

c) Intravenous injection

d) Intradermal injection

E) Intraperitoneal injection

Oral drug delivery: The oral route is the most popular route for drug administration. Suspensions, tablets, capsules, etc. are administered through this route.

– Topical drug delivery: Drugs can also be administered through the skin to enter the body. Semisolid dosage forms are often used for this, including creams, ointments, gels, and pastes. However, liquid dosage forms, such as emulsions, or solid dosage forms, such as transdermal controlled drug delivery systems (patches), may also be used.

– Transmucosal: This drug is administered through the nasal, oral/sublingual, vaginal, ocular and rectal routes.

· According to the mechanism of drug release, the drug delivery system is applied

Another system that can be used to differentiate a drug delivery system is the way the drug is released. It can be distinguished:

– Immediate release – The drug is released immediately after administration.

– Modified release – drug release occurs only after administration or for a longer period of time or for a specific target in the body. Modified-release systems can be further classified as:

a) Delayed release: The drug is released only at some point after the initial administration.

b) Extended release: Prolongs release to reduce dosing frequency

– Sustained release: These systems maintain the rate of drug release for a long period of time.

– Controlled release: Controlled-release systems also offer a sustained-release profile but, in contrast to sustained-release forms, controlled-release systems are designed to lead to predictably stable plasma concentrations, independent of the biological environment of the application site. This means that they are actually controlling the concentration of the drug in the body, not just the release of the drug from the dosage form, as is the case in a sustained-release system.

– Targeted drug delivery (smart drug delivery): This is a method of delivering a drug to a patient that increases the concentration of the drug in some parts of the body compared to others. The goal of targeted drug delivery systems is long-lasting, localized, safe drug interaction with target and diseased tissue.

Diseases and design of drug delivery systems

Disease is an abnormal condition that affects the body of an organism. It is often explained as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be primarily due to factors from an external source, such as an infectious disease, or it may be due to internal diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, dissociative symptoms, deviant behaviors. and a distinct difference of structure and function.

Medical treatment is an attempt to treat or improve a disease or other health problem. Many drug molecules have already been developed but the development of more new drug molecules is expensive and time consuming. Therefore, it is considered a good idea to improve the effectiveness ratio of “old” drugs. This has been attempted by developing new drug delivery systems that facilitate individualization of drug therapy, dose titration, and therapeutic drug monitoring. Drug delivery at a controlled rate, delayed delivery, targeted delivery are very attractive methods and are being followed rigorously. Drug delivery systems modify the drug release profile, absorption, distribution and elimination for the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety. It also ensures patient convenience and compliance.

There are some drug molecules that show site specific drug release such as, peptides and proteins. Without a suitable drug delivery system, such drugs cannot exert their action. Therefore, the increasing number of peptide and protein drugs being investigated demands the development of dosage forms that exhibit site-specific release. Drug delivery into the systemic circulation via colonic absorption represents a novel mode of introducing peptide and protein drug molecules and drugs that are poorly absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Oral colon-specific drug delivery systems offer clear advantages over parenteral administration. Targeting the colon is inherently valuable for the topical treatment of colon diseases such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. Sustained colonic release of the drug may be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma, angina and arthritis. Peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides and vaccines are potential candidates of interest for colon-specific drug delivery. Sulfasalazine, ipsalazide and olsalazine have been developed as colon-specific delivery systems for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

More than 40 million people worldwide are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). High activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) combines at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and, for more than a decade, has been used to prolong the life of HIV-infected patients. Long-term intake of HAART is mandatory to control HIV infection. Repeated administration of multiple drugs at relatively high doses is a major cause of patient noncompliance and a barrier to completion of pharmacotherapy. High adherence to HAART does not lead to eradication of HIV virus from the host. Intracellular and anatomical viral reservoirs are responsible for the persistence of infection. Active transport mechanisms involving proteins of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily inhibit the entry of ARV drugs into the brain and may account for the limited bioavailability after oral administration. A new research that addresses the more complex problems of targeting specific tissues and organs from simple organoleptic or technical problems. With the aim of reducing dosing frequency, improving compliance with existing pharmacotherapy and targeting viral reservoirs, the design of drug delivery systems is increasingly complementing new drug discovery.

conclusion

When a person suffers from a disease, he needs medical treatment and we all prefer safe, effective, economical and convenient treatment. This can only be achieved by developing a suitable drug delivery system. Regardless of how the dosage forms are classified, the role of drug delivery systems is to allow effective, safe, and reliable administration of the drug to the patient.

For proper pharmacotherapy, delivery systems must allow the drug to reach its target site in the body. For example, a tablet formulation containing an antihypertensive drug must be dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract, the drug needs to be dissolved and the dissolved drug needs to penetrate the mucosal membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. So, the development of dosage forms requires the formulation scientist to optimize the bioavailability of the drug.

Likewise, the delivery system will allow safe use of the drug. This includes that the drug in the formulation should be chemically, physically and microbiologically stable. Side effects of drugs and drug interactions should be avoided or minimized by the use of appropriate drug delivery systems. Delivery systems also need to improve patient compliance with pharmacotherapy by developing convenient applications. For example, developing an oral dosage form can improve patient compliance where previously only parenteral application was possible.

Finally, the delivery system needs to be reliable and its formulation technically feasible. However, for any use of drug delivery systems in the market, the dosage form needs to be produced in large quantities and at low cost to provide affordable drugs. Therefore, there is also a need to study the feasibility of developed systems that scale from laboratory to production standards.

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