For Condensed Formula What You Do To The Triple Bond Structure and Function of Cell Nucleus, ER, Ribosomes and Golgi Apparatus

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Structure and Function of Cell Nucleus, ER, Ribosomes and Golgi Apparatus

Endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum structure

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle inside the cell. The ER is a network of fluid-filled tubes. There are two types of ER, rough and smooth. A cell can have both or only one depending on its function.

• Rough ER is attached to the nuclear membrane. Its outer surface is lined with ribosomes (organelles involved in protein formation).

• Smooth ER is continuous with rough ER but has no ribosomes.

Endoplasmic reticulum functions Rough ER

• Forms the building blocks of cell membranes (phospholipids and cholesterol).

• Helps build and transport proteins.

• The external face provides a site for chemical reactions.

Protein synthesis and transport

1 Ribosomes build protein strands in the rough ER wall.

2 Within the lumen, protein strands fold into shapes specific to their chemical composition, identifying them as specific proteins.

3 Sugars can be added to proteins to form glycoproteins.

4 Complete proteins are enclosed in membrane vesicles (small membrane sacs), which pinch off the ER and travel to other sites in the cell.

Smooth ER Enzymes (biocatalysts) embedded in its membrane walls are involved in chemical reactions:

Build up of cholesterol;

• Production of sex hormones (steroids, hormones made from cholesterol);

fat processing;

• Detoxification of toxins; and

• Muscle cell contraction.

Location and Structure of Ribosomes

Ribosomes are organelles found inside human cells. They are also found in all other plant and animal cells. Ribosomes are used to decode DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) into proteins.

They are small, spherical granules.

Ribosomes are located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (giving it a “rough” appearance). They are also found individually throughout the cytoplasm.

close to the nucleus

Ribosomes are most evident in the rough ER, where most of the cell’s proteins are manufactured. Ribosomes read mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) molecules, a type of nucleic acid copied from the cell’s DNA, which are transported from the nucleus through the ER lumen.

decoders

A ribosome has two parts, a large and a small subunit. They are made up of rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) and protein. Each ribosome is only 20 nm in diameter and 30 nm in height.

mRNA molecules are passed between the two units. At this point the three letter code of mRNA is translated.

Functions of ribosomes

When placed between ribosomal subunits, a single strand of mRNA comes into contact with another type of nucleic acid called tRNA (transfer RNA).

tRNA molecules are coded to attach to specific amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

mRNA codes for specific amino acids using three-letter “words,” or codons. The letters in each word correspond to bases, specific units that line up along the RNA molecule. The bases are guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and uracil (U). Four bases form opposite pairs: G with C and A with U. Therefore, each codon of mRNA binds to the same tRNA molecule consisting of opposite bases. In doing so, the tRNA places the correct amino acid in the correct position for protein production.

Free ribosomes (those not attached to rough ER) are involved in making proteins such as enzymes for use by the cell itself. Membrane-bound ribosomes (those attached to the rough ER) are often involved in making proteins that are used in the cell membrane or exported out of the cell.

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, or complex, is an organelle found in many human cells.

It is usually located in the center of the cell near the nucleus. It is named after the 19th-century Italian anatomist Camillo Golgi, and relates to the secretion of substances from cells.

• The Golgi apparatus is a stack of four to six flat, membrane-bound, dike-shaped sacs called cisternae.

A stacked cisterna looks like a pile of pottery.

• Surrounding each Golgi apparatus are a large number of membranous vesicles (tiny membrane sacs). Most vesicles are located near the Golgi apparatus near the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

• Each Golgi stack has two “faces” or sides. The cis face is on one side and the trans face is on the other. Generally, the cis face is toward the rough ER and the trans face toward the cell (plasma) membrane is seen around the cell. These facies are functionally and biochemically distinct, and contain many different enzymes (biocatalysts).

• Each facet is connected to its own network of branching and interconnecting tubules (smaller tubes).

These are known as cis-Golgi and trans-Golgi networks.

• Proteins and lipids move from the ER to vesicles in the cis phase, where they enter cisternae. These substances are then released into other vesicles via the trans phase.

the nucleus

Nucleus structure

The nucleus is usually located in the center of the cell. Its shape often reflects the size of the cell. For example, flat cells have a flat nucleus.

A nucleus contains:

The The nuclear envelope. It is made up of two membranes. Like cell membranes, each nuclear membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer—two layers of phospholipid molecules.

• Nuclear poresAt some points, nuclear membranes fuse to form holes in the nuclear envelope.

• Nucleoplasm It is a gel-like liquid that contains nutrients and essential chemicals such as salts. The nucleolus and chromatin are suspended in the nucleoplasm.

• Chromatin Amorphous dark field the nucleus Made up of strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA consists of chromatin fibers wound around histone proteins.

A DNA strand contains a nucleosome in a cluster of eight histones.

Normally, chromatin is not visible under a light microscope. During cell division, however, the chromatin condenses to form chromosomes, which are visible under a light microscope.

• Nucleolus It is a compact ball of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein. It has no outer membrane. Each nucleus contains one or more nucleoli.

Nucleus shapes

Nuclei in different cells have a range of sizes.

Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, have no nucleus. Different white blood cells (leukocytes) have abnormal nuclei. Neutrophils have multi-lobed nuclei.

Eosinophils have only two lobes. The nucleus of a basophil cell, behind the granules of histamine it contains, is difficult to see.

Lymphocytes are small cells, and their nucleus fills almost the entire cell.

Monocytes are very large cells. Their nuclei are often kidney-shaped.

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