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Types of Chemical Reactions
A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the conversion of reactants into products or products. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. A type of chemical reaction is usually characterized by the type of chemical change, and it produces one or more products that are, in general, different from the reactants.
Generally speaking, chemical reactions involve changes that strictly involve the movement of electrons in the formation and breaking of chemical bonds. Chemical equations are often used to describe the chemical transformations of elementary particles that occur during a reaction.
Chemical changes are the result of chemical reactions. All chemical reactions involve a change in substances and a change in energy. However, neither matter nor energy is created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. There are so many chemical reactions that it is useful to categorize them into different types with terms widely used to describe common reactions.
Combination Reaction or Synthesis Reaction: It is a reaction in which 2 or more chemical elements or compounds combine to form a more complex product.
Example: N2 + 3 H2 ‘ 2 NH3
Isomerisation reaction: is a reaction in which a chemical compound undergoes a structural rearrangement without any change in its pure molecular structure.
Example: trans-2-butene and cis-2-butene are isomers.
Chemical decomposition reaction or analysis: is a reaction in which a compound is broken down into smaller compounds or elements:
Example: 2 H2O ‘ 2 H2 + O2
Single displacement or substitution: This type of reaction is characterized by an element being displaced out of a compound by a more reactive element.
Example: 2 Na(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ‘ 2 NaCl(aq) + H2(g)
Metathesis or Double Displacement Reaction: Represents a reaction in which two compounds exchange ions or bonds to form different compounds.
Examples: NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) ‘ NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)
Acid-Base Reactions: Broadly these reactions are characterized as reactions between an acid and a base, there may be different definitions based on the acid-base concept. Some of the most common are:
Arrhenius definition: acid H3O + ions dissociate in water released; Bases dissociate in water releasing OH-ions.
Brønsted-Lowry definition: Acids are proton (H+) donors; Bases are proton acceptors.
Lewis Definition: Acids are electron-pair acceptors; Bases are electron-pair donors.
Example: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ‘ NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
Redox reactions: are reactions in which the oxidation numbers of atoms in the species involved change. Those reactions can often be interpreted as the transfer of electrons between different molecular sites or species.
Example: 2 S2O32(aq) + I2(aq) ‘ S4O62(aq) + 2 I(aq)
In this case, I2 is oxidized to I- and S2O32- (the thiosulfate anion) is oxidized to S4O62-.
Combustion Reaction: This is a type of redox reaction in which any combustible substance reacts with an oxygen element, usually oxygen, to generate heat and form oxidized products.
Example: C3H8 + 5 O2 ‘ 3 CO2 + 4 H2O
Other types of chemical reactions include biological reactions that are found in organic chemistry.
Organic reactions form a wide variety of reactions involving compounds that have carbon as the main element in their molecular structure. In contrast to inorganic reactions, organic chemistry reactions are classified in large part by the types of functional groups present within each compound. In this case reactions are described by showing the mechanisms by which the changes occur.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. The basic biochemical reaction types are listed below:
– More responses
– Elimination reactions
– Substitution reactions
– Redox reactions
– Restructuring reactions
– Pericyclic reaction
For example, the general form of an SN2 mechanism is as follows:
where nuc: = nucleophile
X = leaving group (usually halide or tosylate, mesylate)
An example of a hydroxide ion that acts as a nucleophile and bromine is a leaving group
This results in inversion of configuration due to backside attack of the nucleophile.
Solvent type, electrophile and leaving group, all play an important role in this type of reaction:
Solvents: Protic solvents such as water and alcohol make the nucleophile so stable that it does not react with the substrate. Therefore, the use of good polar aprotic solvents such as ethers and ketones and halogenated hydrocarbons is essential.
Nucleophile: A good nucleophile is essential as it is involved in the rate determining step. A weak nucleophile does not attack the substrate efficiently.
Leaving group: A good leaving group is required, such as a halide or tosylate, as it is involved in the rate-determining step (good leaving group for halogens: I>Br>Cl>F)
In biosynthesis, biological reactions are used in the construction of new organic molecules. The production of many man-made chemicals such as drugs, plastics, foods, clothing depends on biological reactions.
Among these, the oldest biological reactions are the combustion of biofuels to make soap and the saponification of fats. Modern and advanced organic chemistry begins with the synthesis of terpenes, carbohydrates, proteins, steroids and polymerization reactions in the eighteenth century. In the history of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the prize has been awarded for the discovery of specific biological reactions such as the Grignard reaction in 1912, the Diels-Alder reaction in 1950, the Wittig reaction in 1979 and olefin metathesis in 2005.
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