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## Heat and Temperature: An Overview

**Summer:** Heat is one of the earliest known forms of energy. Heat is related to temperature. Temperature tells us how hot or cold an object is. However, if heat is a cause, temperature is an effect.

If a substance is heated, its temperature increases without changing phase/state (solid to liquid or gas to liquid).

We use different units of temperature called Celsius, Fahrenheit or Kelvin. The SI unit of temperature is Kelvin. The following conversion formula is useful for converting temperature from one unit to another.

(C-0)/(100-0) =(F-32)/(212-32) =(K-273) /(373-273) which is simply C/5 =F-32/9 or K= 273 +C.

It is worth noting about the temperature

- -40 C=-40 F (only temperature that is equal on both scales)
- Kelvin temperature cannot be negative.
- Minimum temperature = 0 K or -273 C but no upper temperature limit.
- Temperature difference of 1 C = temperature difference of 1 k.

Temperature is defined by the fundamental zeroth law of thermodynamics which states that if A and B are in thermal equilibrium, if B and C are in thermal equilibrium then A and C will also be in thermal equilibrium.

*Temperature measurement* called thermometry. For temperature measurements, we select a material property (such as the length of a mercury column or the resistivity of a metal) that varies with temperature. This property is called thermometric property.

Actually temperature and its measurement is indirect. We measure the change in a thermometric property and then relate it to temperature by a calibration method. We use different thermometers for different temperature ranges.

**Calculation of heat**

Take the mass (m) of any object initially at temperature t1. Now we supply heat (Q) to this object such that the temperature of the object increases at t2. It has been shown that Q is directly proportional to mass (more mass more heat for the same temperature rise, less mass less heat. Q is also proportional to temperature difference (more temperature change needed to keep temperature the same). —–Q =m C (delta t) where C is defined as the specific heat capacity or specific heat of the material.

The material’s physical properties and its value depend only on the material (irrespective of its size and shape).

C=Q/m(delta t)

Let m=1 kg, delta t=1 C or 1 K. We get C=Q. So we can use this formula to define C. *specific heat* It is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 unit of unit mass. Its SI unit is J/Kg K. Another unit Cal/gm C is also very popular. 1 Cal=4.186 J approx = 4.2 J. For example the specific heat of water is 1 Cal/gm C or 4200 J/kg K. The specific heat of copper is 0.1 cal/gm C. This means if we take 1 gm of both (water and copper) 1 C of copper requires 0.1 cal and water requires 1 cal (about 10 times more than copper). High specific heat of water is very useful in daily life. Water is used:

- As a coolant in the engine.
- Hot water bottles are used for fermentation.
- Farmers flood their fields with water to protect their crops from the cold.

If we use the formula Q=mC(delta t) to calculate the heat in phase or state change. We know that temperature is constant so delta t = 0 so by this formula heat comes to zero but we know practically we need to supply some heat. So this formula for heat does not work in case of phase change. In phase/state change we use Q=mL; Where m=mass, L=latent heat (depending on fusion or vaporization process). So we have only two formulas for heat calculation:

- Q=m C (delta t)
- Q=m L (used when state/phase changes and temp.= constant).

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