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Data Protection In Computers
First let’s understand what is data? Data is nothing, information is. All information in a computer is called data. Data is the plural form of the Latin word “Datum”. What we type into a computer is called data. There are two types of data, the first is character or numeric data, and the second is called binary. The first is easily readable by humans. The second helps the computer work. They are readable by computer programs.
What is Data Security: Generally, the word security means the protection given to something. For example, a house protects us from getting wet, raining etc. In computers, the term security refers to keeping data safe from others, so that others cannot access the information. In a computer, information is permanently stored on any secondary storage device such as hard disk, floppy disk, CD-ROM disk, etc. We need to protect it from being accessed or modified or deleted. There are two categories of data; They are private and public. Personal data includes characteristics like your name, password, address, telephone number, etc. Public data is made available to the public, providing information in some specific fields that include science, technology, mathematics, etc. All information in these areas is not public data. They may also contain private data. It depends on how the data is managed to prevent access.
Generally, we store information or data in the form of files, on secondary storage devices. The computer checks whether the data is in safe mode. If this is true, the computer will not provide data to the user. In the case of the Microsoft family of operating systems, each file information is stored in the File Allocation Table (FAT). A file allocation table is a table of rows and columns, each row corresponding to a file. Columns, filenames, address offsets and where data can be read are various file attributes. One way, and perhaps the only way, to protect a file in FAT, FAT16, FAT32 is to hide it and make it read-only. But, that was not enough, as the user, knowing the existence of the file, can directly access it, without any difficulty. Microsoft later released NTFS (New Technology File System), which greatly increased security options.
With the advent of client-server technology, there were revolutionary changes in computer systems. NTFS introduced a concept called file and folder level security, where the user can set options including username and password. A user with sufficient permissions can access the file. However, there are many other* issues. Usernames and passwords must be protected. So, they introduced a concept called encryption and decryption. The basic idea of encryption is to convert data from one form to another. For example, suppose the letter ‘A’ becomes ‘Z’ after encryption. Decryption is the exact opposite of encryption. ie ‘Z’ should become ‘A’, after reverse that is decryption.
Encryption and decryption involve very complex mathematical formulas. One needs to be good at mathematics, writing programs, for encryption and decryption. To this day, no one knows the actual process except the program’s author. But, too many smart guesses can break the encryption code. So, many encryption and decryption algorithms came up, which made guessing difficult. Research for the best encryption and decryption process is already on its way.
A second security measure, besides encryption, is a firewall. A firewall is a program that monitors traffic. Traffic is nothing, a group of files. It can be a network file or a simple file. A firewall prevents certain files or data from entering the system. It examines the data or properties of the file and allows or blocks the file based on a set of conditions. For example say, let’s say, if someone can prevent the abc.txt file from entering the system. Like intelligence, we can block or allow unwanted messages or files to enter our computer.
Advances in technology have brought high levels of security to computer systems. However, there is a need to build a more advanced data security system, which can prevent unauthorized access to the system in the coming years.
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