Example Of How To Do A Formula In Word Table Calculation Of Empty Space In An Atom (Considering The Simplest Hydrogen Atom)

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Calculation Of Empty Space In An Atom (Considering The Simplest Hydrogen Atom)

All about an atom,

Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements. Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and reside in the center of the atom, called the nucleus. Electrons are extremely light and exist in a cloud orbiting the nucleus. The radius of the electron cloud is 10,000 times that of the nucleus.

Protons and neutrons have almost the same mass. However, a proton weighs more than 1,800 electrons. Atoms always have the same number of protons and electrons, and the number of protons and neutrons is usually the same. Adding a proton to an atom creates a new element, while adding a neutron creates an isotope, or heavier version, of that atom.

the nucleus

The nucleus was discovered in 1911, but its parts were not identified until 1932. Almost all the mass of an atom resides in the nucleus. The nucleus is held together by the “strong force”, one of the four fundamental forces in nature. This force between protons and neutrons overcomes the repulsive electric force that would otherwise push protons apart according to the laws of electricity.

Proton

Protons are positively charged particles found within the atomic nucleus. They were discovered by Ernest Rutherford in experiments conducted between 1911 and 1919.

The number of protons in an atom defines what element it is. For example, carbon atoms have six protons, hydrogen atoms have one, and oxygen atoms have eight. The number of protons in an atom is called the atomic number of that element. The number of protons in an atom also determines the chemical behavior of the element. The periodic table of elements arranges the elements in order of increasing atomic number.

Protons are made up of other particles called quarks. Each proton has three quarks—two “up” quarks and one “down” quark—and they are held together by other particles called gluons.

electrons

Electrons have a negative charge and are electrically attracted to positively charged protons. Electrons surround the atomic nucleus in paths called orbitals. The inner orbitals around the atom are spherical but the outer orbitals are more complex.

The electron configuration of an atom is an orbital description of the positions of the electrons in an atom. Using electron configuration and principles of physics, chemists can predict the properties of atoms, such as stability, boiling point and conductivity.

In general, only the outermost electron shells are important in chemistry. Inner electron shell notation is often truncated by replacing the long-arm orbital description in parentheses with the symbol for the noble gas. This method of notation greatly simplifies the description of large molecules.

For example, the electron configuration for beryllium (Be) is 1s22s2, but it is written [He]2s2. [He] All the electron orbitals in the helium atom are equal. The letters, s, p, d, and f specify the size of the orbitals and the superscript gives the number of electrons in that orbital.

Neutron

Neutrons are uncharged particles found inside the atomic nucleus. The mass of a neutron is slightly greater than that of a proton. Like protons, neutrons are made up of quarks – one “up” quark and two “down” quarks. James Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932.

It’s pretty much all. Let’s look at the hydrogen atom to see how empty it really is.

A hydrogen atom is made up of a single proton orbited by a single electron. How big is a hydrogen atom? The radius of a hydrogen atom is called the Bohr radius, which is equal to 529 × 10-10 m. This means that the volume of a hydrogen atom is about 6.2 × 10-31 cubic meters.

How big is the proton in the center of the hydrogen atom? Recent studies indicate that protons have a radius of about .84 × 10-15 m, which gives them a volume of about 2.5 × 10-45 cubic meters.

We need to do a little more math to figure out how much empty space a hydrogen atom has: .

Percent Complete = 100 × (Volume Filled / Total Volume)

Absolute percentage = 100 × (2.5 × 10**-45 m3 / 6.2 × 10**-31 m3)

Absolute percentage = 100 × (4 × 10**-15)

Absolute percentage = 4 × 10**-13 %

Absolute Percentage = 0.0000000000004%

If 0.0000000000004% of hydrogen atoms are filled, the rest must be empty:

Percent Empty = 100% – Percent Full

Percent Empty = 100% – 0.0000000000004%

Percent Empty = 99.9999999999996%

A hydrogen atom is approximately 99.9999999999996% empty space. Put another way, if a hydrogen atom were the size of the Earth, the proton at its center would be about 200 meters (600 feet) across. While I don’t want a huge landing on my head, it is small compared to the size of the Earth.

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