Environmental Regulations A Are Formulated Mostly At The Federal Leve International Environmental Law and Policy of Sustainable Development

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International Environmental Law and Policy of Sustainable Development

It is clear that states and international organizations are the primary sources of international law. However, international environmental law is the result of the efforts of non-governmental organizations and state authorities. Countries such as the United States of America, Germany, Japan, Russia, South Africa, Brazil, China, India and Indonesia have made positive efforts to formulate laws and policies in the field of international environmental law. In most cases, environmental protection is witnessed in countries that have a constitutional right to guarantee a healthy environment free from pollution. For example, the constitutions of Costa Rica, Latin America, Chile, Hungary, South Africa provide for the ‘right to an environment free from pollution’. Many European member states amended their constitutions after the fall of communism and included the right to the environment as a legitimate right in the constitution.

In federal states, local governments legislate on environmental issues within their jurisdiction. Laws and policies initiated by different nations and their local regions have influenced each other to develop state practice of international environmental regulations. In this context, state and national level administrative and bureaucratic bodies have played an important role in creating environmental activism.

In addition, UN bodies at the global level have played a key role in the process of environmental protection law making. For example, the role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund cannot be overlooked as they have helped initiate action in the meantime. States and pre-existing international organizations including the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).

However, there are many differences in decision-making on environmental issues at every level, local, national, and international. In particular, there is a complete lack of consensus regarding environmental decisions, despite a comprehensive institutional framework at the global level. Therefore, creating a system of international environmental governance with sustainable development as a priority is challenging.

It was not until the late 1980s that sustainable development began to be incorporated into international texts on a frequent basis, first primarily in political documents and then in binding treaty texts. One of the first treaties to use the term, and specifically outside of an environmental context, was the 1990 agreement establishing the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Despite continuing political disagreements, the concept of sustainable development is now included in a significant number of binding and non-binding texts at regional and global levels. However, the international community at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2012 saw this progress as most unsatisfactory.

Humanity stands at a decisive moment in history, and we need to realize that the integration of environmental, development concerns and greater attention to them will lead to the fulfillment of basic needs and the improvement of the standard of living for all. Guaranteeing an eco-friendly prosperous future. No single nation can achieve this dependence, but together we can in a global partnership for sustainable development.

Therefore, the development and protection of the environment should go together. Governments of all nations (underdeveloped, developing and developed) should adopt development policies that ensure pollution control. In this sense, international environmental law faces one of the greatest challenges in meeting the development and environmental needs of current and future generations.

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